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Class COLLEMBOLA Lubbock, 1870

Elongate springtails.

Many pictures.

You can go along the species, but you can also make a choice from the: overview

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens


Podura aquatica Linnaeus, 1758. Very common, widespread.

Podura aquatica must be a common species that is strongly bound to water. On stationary waters, it can sometimes appear in large numbers. Longer than one year after I am intensively engaged with springtails, I come to it for the first time in a puddle next to a wet heathland. It's a small springtail, up to 1.5 mm. Note Frans Janssens: With characteristic and distinctly long claws.

Podura aquatica
Podura aquatica

Podura aquatica
Podura aquatica

Podura aquatica
Podura aquatica

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Brachystomella parvula (Schäffer, 1896). Common, widespread.

A very small springtail, until about one mm long. They have a striking color, no spines on the back and on both sides 8 ocelli.

Brachystomella parvula
Brachystomella parvula

Brachystomella parvula
Brachystomella parvula

Brachystomella parvula
Brachystomella parvula

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Ceratophysella bengtssoni (Agren, 1904). Rare.

This is a difficult family, there are in the Netherlands some thirty species and the animals are generally very small. That makes it difficult to determine them from a photo. Identify is on the basis of the seta (hair). It is therefore usual to kill the animals and to paste them on a microscope slide. Than the hairs can be viewed with a microscope. Ceratophysella bengtssoni is determined by the very small anal spines, according to Frans in fact almost not visible in this image.

Ceratophysella bengtssoni
Ceratophysella bengtssoni

Ceratophysella bengtssoni
Ceratophysella bengtssoni

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Ceratophysella denticulata (Bagnall, 1941). Common, widespread.

On Ceratophysella denticulata is on the fourth abdomen the middle seta p1 shorter than the next standing p2.

Ceratophysella denticulata
Ceratophysella denticulata

Ceratophysella denticulata
Ceratophysella denticulata

Some examples of Hypogastruridae which are not further to identify.

Hypogastruridae spec.
Hypogastruridae spec.

Hypogastruridae spec.
Hypogastruridae spec.

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Ceratophysella gibbosa (Bagnall, 1940). Not listed.

Ceratophysella gibbosa I have found and photographed during an excursion with Matty Berg. The animal is by Matty collected and determined. In a forest near Zaandam is a dead tree on the ground, if I pull a piece of bark from the decaying stem, I find there the animal that stands out for its light color.

Ceratophysella gibbosa
Ceratophysella gibbosa

Ceratophysella gibbosa
Ceratophysella gibbosa

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Hypogastrura litoralis (Axelson, 1907). Not listed.

Hypogastrura litoralis is a species that in the Netherlands is known only from the area near Nijmegen. I've found them on the Bank of the river Waal at Nijmegen in the Ooijpolder. The animals are of the size of a Neanura muscorum, so fairly large.

Hypogastrura litoralis
Hypogastrura litoralis

Hypogastrura litoralis
Hypogastrura litoralis

Hypogastrura litoralis
Hypogastrura litoralis

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Hypogastrura viatica (Tullberg, 1872). Very common, widespread.

When visiting the Frisian coast at Moddergat, huge numbers of springtails are found up on the washed up seaweed. They are very agile and jump much. A few days later, Matty Berg in the same place also found the animals and collected some for identification. It turns out to be Hypogastrura viatica a very general species.

Hypogastrura viatica
Hypogastrura viatica

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Schaefferia sp.

Behind the bark of the chestnut tree next to our House I discover a very small springtail. According to me it is a juvenile Neanura muscorum and so I put it on Flickr.com. Frans thinks it is Schaefferia sp., given the 2 ‘large’ anal spines and the ocelli count is less than 8.

Schaefferia sp.
Schaefferia sp.

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Xenylla grisea Axelson. 1900. Rare.

Xenylla grisea is a very small springtail that I've found in my garden on a piece of mossy oak branch. One of the features of this species is that they have but five ocelli. Further characteristics of this species are hard to see on a photo. This photo is identified by Frans Janssens.

Xenylla grisea
Xenylla grisea

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Xenylla maritima Tullberg, 1869. Very common, widespread.

Xenylla maritima is especially found behind the bark of the plane tree. Sometimes you can find them there in large numbers. It's a small springtail and I find it difficult to distinguish it from other small blue grey species. That is also the reason that I only look better to them now. I think I am able to recognize reasonable other types of springtails. Characteristic for this species are the five ocelli.

Xenylla maritima
Xenylla maritima

Xenylla maritima
Xenylla maritima

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Anurida granaria (Nicolet, 1847). Rare.

In a park near Zaandijk where maintenance is quite natural, there walk among others cattle, we find a very nice white springtail that reminds me to Neanura muscorum. Matty who has found the animal knows it's another species Anurida granaria. As well as at other white species is shooting tricky, on the dark background your exposure system of the camera get confused. You have to manually compensate otherwise you get no drawing on the animals.

Anurida granaria
Anurida granaria

Anurida granaria
Anurida granaria

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Anurida maritima (Guérin-Méneville, 1836). Common.

A common springtail of coastal areas, hence the English name: Seashore Springtail. They can be found under stones and also on the water's surface. You can compare it to Podura aquatica of the fresh water. Sometimes they are found also in large numbers. Both eyes consist of five ocelli. The animals can reach more than 3 mm. A springtail is missing (see photo of the bottom), so it can't jump.

Anurida maritima
Anurida maritima

Anurida maritima
Anurida maritima

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Bilobella braunerae (Deharveng, 1981). Rare.

Bright orange in color is Bilobella braunerae. This species was first described for The Netherlands in 2009. At the bottom of this page is a link where you can download this description (Berg, 2009 bilobella and neanura) (in Dutch). It is a rare animal, known from three places in The Netherlands. You can find it under old tree bark and trunks on very damp places. The photos were taken in Zaandijk at the place where it was first found in The Netherlands, with thanks to Matty Berg.

Bilobella braunerae
Bilobella braunerae

Bilobella braunerae
Bilobella braunerae

Bilobella braunerae
Bilobella braunerae

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Neanura muscorum (Templeton, 1835). Very common, widespread.

These animals are not in the possession of a springtail and usually run pretty slow. They are also easy photo models, also because they are quite large, up to 3 mm. You will find them mainly under dead wood. A good characteristic are the long yellowish spiny hairs and the two bumps on the back of the body.

Neanura muscorum
Neanura muscorum

Neanura muscorum
Neanura muscorum

Neanura muscorum
Neanura muscorum juvenile

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Pseudachorutes sp. Rare.

It is impossible to determinate these Pseudachorutes sp. to the species from a picture. In The Netherlands there are four species that all are rare. It's a solid animal and quite big about 2 mm. It does not move quickly and I can make a series of pictures from it. A day later when I go check out the Heath at Schoonloo, it is still under the same branch. I have the impression that it is feeding on a Slime mold.

Pseudachorutes sp.
Pseudachorutes sp.

Pseudachorutes sp.
Pseudachorutes sp.

Pseudachorutes sp.
Pseudachorutes sp.

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Onychiurus edinensis (Bagnall, 1935). Not listed.

In Zaandam in a pile of decayed branches Matty Berg finds a Onychiurus edinensis. Of all the pictures that I make there is only 1 a bit sharp. It is a small animal without eyes.

Onychiurus edinensis
Onychiurus edinensis

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Protaphorura armata (Tullberg, 1869). Common, widespread.

Turning a pretty big block in a moorland I see some white springtails walking around and within minutes disappear in the ground. On the stone there is another one that also runs around but cannot hide. Making me a lot of trouble to take a reasonable sharp picture from it. It is a soil springtail Protaphorura armata it can't jump and has no eyes, a very common species.

Protaphorura armata
Protaphorura armata 20-03-2012

Protaphorura armata
Protaphorura armata 31-10-2012

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Paratullbergia callipygos (Börner, 1902). Rare.

Again a very small, white and fast moving springtail. A whole group of these animals is under a branch on the Moor near Schoonloo. There is a large number and thereby I get several animals in the pictures. This allows me to take out of the different pictures those ones that are on the last segments very sharp. The species characteristics sit on segment nr 6, 2 anal spines posteriorly and 2 curved ridges anteriorly.

Paratullbergia callipygos
Paratullbergia callipygos

Paratullbergia callipygos
Paratullbergia callipygos

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Cyphoderus albinus Nicolet, 1847. Common, widespread.

27-03-2011 This afternoon I turn around a garden tile and under it are ordinary street ants. When most ants are walked away, I see a small all white springtail. It is very small and moves like the ants walk. Run a half inch, then one tenth of a second stop, than in a different direction a half inch, stop, etc. It's terrible, you think you have it in focus, it just starts running again. This type of spring tail is completely blind, has no eyes, they live in ants nests.

Mierenspringstaart, Cyphoderus albinus
Mierenspringstaart, Cyphoderus albinus

Mierenspringstaart, Cyphoderus albinus
Mierenspringstaart, Cyphoderus albinus

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Anurophorus laricis Nicolet, 1842. Common.

This spring tail is not in the possession of a springtail. It is able to survive extreme drought and extreme cold in the normal winter period. Outside the normal cold season, the animals have no anti-freeze. The color of the small animal, smaller than 2 mm, is metallic gray. This species I found around the Zuidlaardermeer in the province of Groningen, it is a common species. They feed mainly on lichens.

Anurophorus laricis
Anurophorus laricis

Anurophorus laricis
Anurophorus laricis

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Ballistrura schoetti (Dalla Torre,1895). Rare.

Ballistura schoetti. This springtail I found together with Podura aquatica on a piece of bark floating on a puddle next to a piece of wet heathland. I first kept it for a Podura but after I had put the photo on Flickr.com Frans Janssens came with the correct name.

Ballistura schoetti
Ballistura schoetti

Ballistura schoetti
Ballistura schoetti

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Folsomia candida Willem, 1902. Moderately common, widespread.

Folsomia candida is one of the eyeless white species that are difficult to photograph. The body is long and the animals are fast, furthermore you have no eye where you can focus on. Another problem is the bright white on mostly very dark background, this causes on photos often a white cloud around the animal. This animal I have found in the greenhouse in a container where I have sown seeds in. You can recognize them because the last body segments, the Nos. 4, 5 and 6 are fused together. (Thanks to Frans Janssens).

Folsomia candida
Folsomia candida

Folsomia candida
Folsomia candida

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Folsomia quadrioculata (Tullberg,1871). Moderately common.

Folsomia quadrioculata has, as the name implies, but four ocelli, two on each side. This species I have found on a piece of moorland near Schoonloo, that is grazed by sheep.

Folsomia quadrioculata
Folsomia quadrioculata

Folsomia quadrioculata
Folsomia quadrioculata

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Hemisotoma thermophila (Axelson,1900). Not listed.

26-03-2012.Yet another springtail that becomes its name after a long time. The photo is already made in March 2011, but now I get to know that Frans Janssens has provided it a name, Hemisotoma thermophila, (given the apparently fused abd.5+6 FJ). It is a small springtail.

Hemisotoma thermophila
Hemisotoma thermophila 05-03-2011

Hemisotoma thermophila
Hemisotoma thermophila 18-10-2012

Hemisotoma thermophila
Hemisotoma thermophila 25-02-2013

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Desoria olivacea (Tullberg, 1871). Rare.

The family Desoria I find difficult to differentiate from the family Isotomurus. They are quite similar and there are many species. The setae (long hairs) are also here the difference. At Desoria those are short on the back and long at Isotomurus. I especially find this species on the surface of the pond and if there are somewhere rainwater puddles.

Desoria olivacea
Desoria olivacea

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Desoria tigrina Nicolet, H. 1842. Not listed.

Desoria has also relatively short setae (long hair) on the abdomen, the characteristic of the Desoria group. The absence of long hair on the rear segments is very clear to see on the bottom picture, it has been made on the ice of the pond, the background of bright ice does not reflects the light back from the Flash, so it turns black. This species lives near or on the water.

Desoria tigrina
Desoria tigrina

Desoria tigrina
Desoria tigrina

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Desoria trispinata (Mac Gillivray, 1896) Not listed.

A number of years ago, I have photographed a blue springtail in the garden. It is on my site as Desoria sp and all the time I have not found it again. When schooting an other springtail on the side of my pond on 11-02-2016, there walk all of a sudden blue springtails along. They are fast and I succeed to make some reasonable photos. Probably it's Desoria trispinata according to Frans Janssens. Afther several nights of frost there are dead specimens on the water, apparently they can't stand this.

Desoria sp.
Desoria sp.

Desoria trispinata
Desoria trispinata

Desoria trispinata
Desoria trispinata

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Isotoma anglicana Lubbock, 1873. Moderately common.

Isotoma anglicana can be found on the impregnated wood of the wind shield next to the house. On very dry dead wood in a heathland site I have found him otherwise. By the drawing on the skin you can set it apart from Isotoma viridis

Isotoma anglicana
Isotoma anglicana

Isotoma anglicana
Isotoma anglicana

Isotoma anglicana
Isotoma anglicana

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Isotoma caerulea (Bourlet, 1839). Not listed.

Isotoma caerulea is difficult to distinguish from Isotoma anglicana, "caerulea" means blue and you would therefore say that the animal on the picture meets. Unfortunately, of all Isotoma's is only Isotoma riparia sure to bring on name from a photo. The others are only to determine on the basis of the hairs on the spring mechanism.

Isotoma caerulea
Isotoma caerulea

Isotoma caerulea
Isotoma caerulea

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Isotoma riparia (Nicolet, 1842). Rare.

Regularly I spend a day in nature with Peter Wieringa to photograph springtails and other nice animals. That is also the case when I shoot Isotoma riparia. Peter has photographed this species one time close to his house and we go there again because I also like to make some pictures. Unfortunately, this time there is at this place no springtail at all. We drive on to the Dollard and shoot a lot of woodlice, harvestmen and springtails. On the outside of the sea dike is very much plant material with pieces of wood, to very high against the dike. This is a gold mine to find small animals. I also take two pictures of what I think is a Isotomurus palustris, but when I get home and view the pictures on the pc, I see that the animal has macro setae (long hairs) on all body segments, it's a Isotoma riparia.

Isotoma riparia
Isotoma riparia

Isotoma riparia
Isotoma riparia

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Isotoma viridis Bourlet, 1839. Very common, widespread.

Isotoma viridis I do find much in the garden, often on the swimming pond and also under pieces of dead wet wood in nature reserves. It is an animal of wet areas. So it sits on pieces of firewood that remain on the lawn.

Isotoma viridis
Isotoma viridis

Isotoma viridis
Isotoma viridis

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Isotomiella minor (Schäffer, 1896). Moderately common.

A springtail without ocelli and thus a soil animal is Isotomiella minor. It lives in the soil and leaf litter and is fairly common. They are small animals, up to 1.3 mm. They are white in color and slightly translucent allowing you to see a clear back stripe on the pictures. It is the intestine, its color may vary depending on what the animal has eaten, if it did not eat the stripe is absent.

Isotomiella minor
Isotomiella minor

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Isotomurus antennalis Bagnall, 1940 Not listed.

Isotomurus antennalis is 27-01-2016 first found in The Netherlands by Louis Geraets. The site is located in Noord Brabant in Offelt next to a railway. The same railway line also runs along Molenhoek, a place where I photographed another rare springtail. Because it is close by, I go there also to search and there I find it too, the second place. It are very small animals just about 2 millimeters. They sit under the stones that are used at the track and also further from the track in the moss. In Molenhoek they are also under pieces of dead wood.
This springtail has the hairs as with Desoria, on other characteristics it is assigned to Isotomurus, by Fauna Europaea and Dr. Arne Fjellberg a specialist in Collembola.

Isotomurus antennalis
Isotomurus antennalis

Isotomurus antennalis
Isotomurus antennalis

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Isotomurus graminis Fjellberg, 2007. Not listed.

Isotomurus graminis is a recently described species, before it was called Isotomurus prasinus, but new insights indicate that this species occurs in Eastern Europe. Isotomurus graminis can easily be confused with Isotoma viridis, both are greenish oblong animals, the difference are the setae (long hairs), with Isotoma on all body segments macro setae, at Isotomurus only on the rear segments.

Isotomurus graminis
Isotomurus graminis

Isotomurus graminis
Isotomurus graminis

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Isotomurus maculatus (Schäffer, 1896). Scarce.

A springtail that looks much similiar to Isotomurus palustris is Isotomurus maculatus. You can recognize it by the line in the middle over the body, this is not a solid line but a collection of spots, seen from the head the spots look like a crown. The first sighting of the species in The Netherlands is described in 2001, Matty Berg, et al.(2001). This article (pdf) you can download from the Naturalis website, sorry it is in Duch language.

Isotomurus maculatus
Isotomurus maculatus

Isotomurus maculatus
Isotomurus maculatus

The stains on the back of the animal below are triangular and the point of the triangle points to the rear. It is a color form with the name: Isotomurus maculatus f. gervaisi.

Isotomurus maculatus f. gervaisi
Isotomurus maculatus f. gervaisi

Isotomurus maculatus f. gervaisi
Isotomurus maculatus f. gervaisi

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Isotomurus palustris (Müller, 1776). Very common, widespread.

This species was formerly not distinguished from Isotomurus pseudopalustris, all older observations are of this species. Nowadays Isotomurus palustris is the animal in which the back stripe goes not through to the end of the abdomen and where there are shadow stripes present. If the line runs through and there are shadow stripes than Isotomurus pseudopalustris, at a continuous stripe without shadow stripes it is Isotomurus unifasciatus.

Isotomurus palustris
Isotomurus palustris

Isotomurus palustris
Isotomurus palustris

Isotomurus palustris
Isotomurus palustris

Isotomurus palustris
Isotomurus palustris, 27-01-2012

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Isotomurus plumosus Bagnall, 1940. Rare.

In a dry Brook I find Isotomurus plumosus under a very humid branch. My first find here is a juvenile and I decide to go there a few more times to find a mature one. This species has a broad dark band across thorax and abdomen and also on the ventral side. After searching a few times, finally an adult specimen. Some other species that occur in the dry Brook are: Isotomurus palustris, Pogonognathellus flavescens, Heteromurus major and Dicyrtomina minuta.

Isotomurus plumosus
Isotomurus plumosus

Isotomurus plumosus, juvenile
Isotomurus plumosus, juvenile

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Isotomurus pseudopalustris Carapelli, Frati, Fanciulli & Dallai, 2001. Not listed.

Isotomurus pseudopalustris is a species newly described in 2001. The difference with Isotomurus palustris is the continuous middle stripe across the back. Further can the drawing next to the middle stripe vary from barely visible to very dark.

Isotomurus pseudopalustris
Isotomurus pseudopalustris

Isotomurus pseudopalustris
Isotomurus pseudopalustris

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Isotomurus unifasciatus (Börner, 1901). Not listed.

This species is often on the water surface and on the edge of the swimming pond.
Note Matty Berg:
The genus Isotomurus is not easy at all. So is I. palustris quite variable and I always look at several specimens to see if a suspected I. unifasciata is not a pale I. palustris.

Isotomurus unifasciatus
Isotomurus unifasciatus

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Parisotoma notabilis (Schäffer, 1896). Very common, widespread.

A small springtail, grey and with a square looking eys is determined by Matty Berg on waarneming.nl as Parisotoma notabilis. These animals are so small and have to my idea no really striking features, so I don't just recognize them yet.

Parisotoma notabilis
Parisotoma notabilis 28-03-2012

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Pseudisotoma sensibilis (Tullberg, 1876). Moderately common and widespread.

A springtail with a bluish color is Pseudisotoma sensibilis, a fairly common species, which I've not previously photographed. I just find the animal in the garden on a place where I have looked many times before. But what appears to be a suitable place for springtails. There is wood for the fireplace, that must be made still small and there are piles of stones that are intended for the garden.

Parisotoma notabilis
Pseudisotoma sensibilis 28-10-2012

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Vertagopus arboreus (Linnaeus, 1758). Moderately common, widespread.

I often do find Vertagopus arboreus on the impregnated wood of the bench around the chestnut tree and under the loose bark of old wood. It are dark animals, from distance they appear to be black. By flash light or when the sun shines on it, the dense coat gets a blue shine. The young animals are pink in color.

Vertagopus arboreus
Vertagopus arboreus

Vertagopus arboreus
Vertagopus arboreus

Vertagopus arboreus
Vertagopus arboreus 02-02-2013

Vertagopus arboreus juvenile
Vertagopus arboreus juvenile

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Vertagopus cinereus (Nicolet, 1841). Moderately common, widespread.

Vertagopus cinereus is a close relative of V. arboreus the difference is the coat, at this species lacks the bluish iridisation, it seems more Brown-grey. Especially when in striking sunlight or on the picture taken with a Flash you'll see the blue glow at V. arboreus very good.

Vertagopus cinereus, juvenile
Vertagopus cinereus, juvenile

Vertagopus cinereus, juvenile
Vertagopus cinereus, juvenile

Vertagopus cinereus, juvenile
Vertagopus cinereus, juvenile

Vertagopus cinereus
Vertagopus cinereus

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Vertagopus pseudocinereus Fjellberg, 1975. Not listed.

Vertagopus pseudocinereus looks very similar to V. cinereus, the difference is again in the hair, this species has on all segments short macro setae (long hairs). Which you can see on the bottom picture where on each segment a longer hair is sticking out.

Vertagopus pseudocinereus
Vertagopus pseudocinereus

Vertagopus pseudocinereus
Vertagopus pseudocinereus

Vertagopus pseudocinereus
Vertagopus pseudocinereus

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Entomobrya albocincta (Templeton, 1835). Very common, widespread.

You can find Entomobrya albocincta on dead wood and under bark, it are fast animals that also can be found on drier places. This species is very easy to recognize. Behind the head first a dark piece, then a very light colored band, followed by four dark segments.

Entomobrya albocincta
Entomobrya albocincta

Entomobrya albocincta
Entomobrya albocincta

Entomobrya albocincta 16-03-2014
Entomobrya albocincta 16-03-2014

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Entomobrya corticalis (Nicolet, 1841). Common, widespread.

Entomobrya corticalis is a species of dry spots, you will find them under loose bark on dead trees that has completely dried out and dead branches on heaths, that kind of places. The species is quite small, about 1.4 mm and they are very fast.

Entomobrya corticalis
Entomobrya corticalis

Entomobrya corticalis
Entomobrya corticalis

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Entomobrya lanuginosa (Nicolet, 1841) Moderately common, probably widespread.

A springtail that I only find in the clay on the coast, is all of a sudden on the letterbox where it is very easy to photograph. This animal has no drawing on its body, it has entirely one colour, with the typical hairs of this family.

Entomobrya lanuginosa
Entomobrya lanuginosa

Entomobrya lanuginosa
Entomobrya lanuginosa

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Entomobrya marginata (Nicolet, 1841) Scarce.

Yet another new springtail in the private garden, this time Entomobrya marginata. A springtail without drawing on the body but a dark border at the end of the segments and olive green.

Entomobrya marginata
Entomobrya marginata

Entomobrya marginata
Entomobrya marginata

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Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg, 1871). Very common, widespread.

(Entomobrya multifasciata) is a species you can find on many places, also on dry spots. Sites include: the basalt sea front, under dry wood on the Moor and in desiccated inflorescences of plants. They are swift mobile animals, which you can recognize to the cross stripes on the body and the forward-facing triangles drawing behind on the fourth abdominal segment.

Entomobrya multifasciata
Entomobrya multifasciata

Entomobrya multifasciata
Entomobrya multifasciata

Entomobrya multifasciata
Entomobrya multifasciata

Entomobrya multifasciata
Entomobrya multifasciata

Entomobrya multifasciata
Entomobrya multifasciata

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Entomobrya muscorum (Nicolet, 1842). Scarce.

Entomobrya muscorum is a large species that I don't often see, so far only in old forests. It's a springtail with very long hairs on the legs and very long antennae. The back drawing is eye-catching, two lines on the back that are backwards interrupted, on the back of the body a cross line and behind it a dark spot.

Entomobrya muscorum
Entomobrya muscorum

Entomobrya muscorum
Entomobrya muscorum

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Entomobrya nicoleti (Lubbock, 1867). Moderately common.

29-03-2011 The following springtail I find under a piece of old chipboard in the backyard. It is Entomobrya nicoleti. Gradually, this group becomes quite complete.

Entomobrya nicoleti
Entomobrya nicoleti

Entomobrya nicoleti
Entomobrya nicoleti

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Entomobrya nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758). Very common, widespread.

Entomobrya nivalis can be found on drier sites, often together with Entomobrya multifasciata, also on metal surfaces with algae growth. The species is clearly indicated by the figure behind on the body, two pulled out triangles with the point backwards and there connected by a thin line.

Entomobrya nivalis
Entomobrya nivalis

Entomobrya nivalis
Entomobrya nivalis

Entomobrya nivalis
Entomobrya nivalis

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Entomobrya quinquelineata (Börner, 1901). Scarce.

Entomobrya quinquelineata can be found under twigs in the Heath on the edge of inland sand dunes. It has a dense hair cover and not all pictures show good the length stripes. It is a relatively small species.

Entomobrya quinquelineata
Entomobrya quinquelineata

Entomobrya quinquelineata
Entomobrya quinquelineata

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Entomobrya schoetti Stach, 1922. Not listed.

Near Schoonloo is a nature area where I've found already very many species of springtails I regularly go look there because I expect the various species are not present throughout the entire year, so that you always will get a chance on a new species if you have not been there before at that certain time. Between a large number of Entomobrya multifasciata on a branch are 27-01-2015 some darker springtails and I don't know them. Frans Janssens comes up with the solution Entomobrya schoetti. The first sighting in The Netherlands

Entomobrya schoetti
Entomobrya schoetti

Entomobrya schoetti
Entomobrya schoetti

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Entomobrya unostrigata Stach, 1930. Rare.

11-10-2012 To find a new kind of harvestman I have come with three other people to the Maasvlakte. It is a beautiful day although it blows a little bit. At one point I go to look, protected from the wind by a dyke, and turn pieces of wood and stone, that is already a fixed habit. On one of the pieces runs a pretty big springstail that I not directly recognize. So take pictures. That's not easy the animal continues to run and I need to get it sharp while it moves. Of the four photos there actually succeed only one a little bit. Unfortunately, a picture taken from the back and the head you can"t see. However, the characteristics of these species are very clear. A dark transverse stripe and dark spots on the middle of the back. On collembola.org I first can not find the animal and I put it with a question mark on Flickr.com. Very soon Frans Janssens replied already. He gives the name of the animal Entomobrya unostrigata and asks if I'm on vacation and whether I want to indicate the place where I found it. The animal is known only from some South European countries and from the United States. If I've done so it shows to be the first sighting in The Netherlands and northwestern Europe.
Description (sorry in Dutch):
Berg, M.P. & J.J. van Duinen 2014. De springstaart Entomobrya unostrigata nieuw voor Noordwest-Europa (Hexapoda: Collembola: Entomobryidae). Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 42: 63-70.

Entomobrya unostrigata
Entomobrya unostrigata 11-10-2012

Entomobrya unostrigata
Entomobrya unostrigata 17-05-2014

Entomobrya unostrigata
Entomobrya unostrigata 17-05-2014

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Heteromurus major (Moniez, 1889). Scarce.

05-04-2011. Sometimes I do not even know initially I shoot a different species. That is the case by this one, photographed simultaneously with Entomobrya nicoleti from under the same piece of old chipboard. When viewing the photos again I'm not so sure that it is a juvenile of a species that I already have and so I put the photos on Flickr.com where Frans Janssens confirms my suspicion and also mentioned the name, it is Heteromurus major.

Heteromurus major
Heteromurus major

Heteromurus major
Heteromurus major

Heteromurus major juvenile
Heteromurus major juvenile 26-02-2013

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Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835). Moderately common, widespread.

Heteromurus nitidus you find usually deeper in the ground, under tree trunks, stones and also between the potatoes. The animal is bright white with a reddish eye-spot and the fourth antenna segment is ringed, but that is very difficult to see.

Heteromurus nitidus, ringed segment 4
Heteromurus nitidus, geringd segment 4

Heteromurus nitidus
Heteromurus nitidus

Heteromurus nitidus
Heteromurus nitidus

Heteromurus nitidus
Heteromurus nitidus

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Lepidocyrtus curvicollis Bourlet, 1839. Rare.

In the greenhouse I find under a flowerpot on 16-02-2014 a springtail that stays put. The color is lighter than what I'm used to at the different species of Lepidocyrtus. It turns out to be Lepidocyrtus curvicollis, a species where the head is very far under the body. This is because the mesothorax makes an angle of almost 90 degrees. At Lepidocyrtus lignorum the angle is not as sharp, at Lepidocyrtus paradoxus (from which I have no picture yet) is the angle even sharper. That animal has a hunchback.

Lepidocyrtus curvicollis
Lepidocyrtus curvicollis

Lepidocyrtus curvicollis
Lepidocyrtus curvicollis

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Lepidocyrtus cyaneus Tullberg, 1871. Very common, widespread.

Two pictures of Lepidocyrtus cyaneus the antennae and legs are scale-less, (no iridisation visible).

springstaart, Lepidocyrtus cyaneus
Lepidocyrtus cyaneus

springstaart, Lepidocyrtus cyaneus
Lepidocyrtus cyaneus

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Lepidocyrtus lignorum (Fabricius, 1781). Very common, widespread.

Pieces of old bark on the bottom are a good home for springtails. Many different species you can find underneath. If it is sunny the Lepidocyrtus species stands out inmediately. The animals sparkle beautifully blue and although they are very small you can see them directly. To distinguish the different species is not easy. The round eye is characteristic for Lepidocyrtus lignorum. Furthermore, there are scales on the first two parts of the antenna.

Lepidocyrtus lignorum
Lepidocyrtus lignorum

Lepidocyrtus lignorum
Lepidocyrtus lignorum

Lepidocyrtus lignorum
Lepidocyrtus lignorum

Lepidocyrtus lignorum
Lepidocyrtus lignorum

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Lepidocyrtus violaceus Lubbock, 1873. Scarce.

A springtail with very intensive colors, found in a nature reserve around here. From this species are also photos on the general part of the springtails under: molting.

Lepidocyrtus violaceus
Lepidocyrtus violaceus

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Orchesella cincta (Linnaeus, 1758). Very common, widespread.

Some springtails are to be photographed well, like this species Orchesella cincta. It is a fairly large springtail and therefore somewhat easier to photograph. You see them throughout the year, also quite high. When cleaning the gutters of the house there are many specimens of this kind between the leaves. On the garden timber you can see them a lot and they remain seated quietly.
In these species there are often brown specimens which always seem to be females.

Orchesella cincta
Orchesella cincta

Orchesella cincta
Orchesella cincta

Orchesella cincta
Orchesella cincta

Orchesella cincta brown form
Orchesella cincta brown form

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Orchesella flavescens (Bourlet, 1839). Very common.

Orchesella flavescens. This springtail can be large, up to 5 mm, it is a very fine beast with many brown colors. There is a color variant with dark head, (var. melanocephala).

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens var. melanocephala

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens

Orchesella flavescens
Orchesella flavescens var. melanocephala

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Orchesella quinquefasciata (Bourlet, 1842). Scarce.

For a long time I search for the fourth Orchesella to be found in The Netherlands, Orchesella quinquefasciata, which you could find on heaths. I can't find this animal there. Then he sits just under a brick and under old boards on the inside of the dike at the Dollard. Here I definitely did not expected it. This animal is very similar to Orchesella flavescens, the difference is in the length stripes on the back, there are five of them at, O. quinquefasciata, one in the middle and on both sides two more. Furthermore, there is a dark stripe connecting the both antennal bases.

Orchesella quinquefasciata
Orchesella quinquefasciata

Orchesella quinquefasciata
Orchesella quinquefasciata

Orchesella quinquefasciata
Orchesella quinquefasciata

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Orchesella villosa (Geoffroy, 1764). Very common, widespread.

The springtail Orchesella villosa is a large species that is usually quite quiet. The animal I found on stones, branches, boards and tree trunks. The drawing is rather busy but length stripes do not appear.

Orchesella villosa
Orchesella villosa

Orchesella villosa
Orchesella villosa

Orchesella villosa
Orchesella villosa

Orchesella villosa
Orchesella villosa

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Pseudosinella sp.

This blind white species I find under a piece of dead wood in the forest near my house. The animal is in the possession of scales and also has macro setae (long hairs). There are a number of species Pseudosinella in The Netherlands and I don't know if it is possible to give them a name from a photo.

Pseudosinella sp
Pseudosinella sp

Pseudosinella sp
Pseudosinella sp

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Sinella curviseta Brook, 1882. Rare, introduced.

To feed the frogs, the next springtail Sinella curviseta comes out of the terrarium trade.

Sinella curviseta
Sinella curviseta

Sinella curviseta
Sinella curviseta

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Coecobrya/Sinella tenebricosa Folsom, 1902. Common

A typical man following species is Sinella tenebricosa. You often find them in greenhouses and zoos. The animal of the photos comes from a park in Zaandijk from a place next to a stable where very many branches have located which are rotten. It is originally an Oriental species. I find this species early 2015 in the own compost bin next to the house. It turns out to have been given a different name, it's now Coecobrya tenebricosa.

Sinella tenebricosa
Sinella tenebricosa

Sinella tenebricosa
Sinella tenebricosa

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Willowsia buski (Lubbock, 1869). Scarce.

You sometimes do find springtails at home. That was the case with this species, Willowsia buski it was under a flowerpot with a fern. It is a small species, less than 1.5 mm. Especially if plants are kept fairly wet, springtails in the soil and under the pot and not rare. This species is known to occur frequently inside houses and greenhouses.

Willowsia buski
Willowsia buski

Willowsia buski
Willowsia buski

Willowsia buski
Willowsia buski

I do find Willowsia buski also outside on the bin for garden waste. In the greenhouse it is also under the flower pots.

Willowsia buski
Willowsia buski

Willowsia buski
Willowsia buski

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Willowsia nigromaculata (Lubbock, 1873). Common, status unclear.

10-08-2010 On the edge of the compost bin there are lately Willowsia nigromaculata. (Note the iridescent scales cover Frans Janssens) 22-06-2012 It is typically an animal that also lives in houses, it now sits under a flowerpot in the living room.

Willowsia nigromaculata
Willowsia nigromaculata

Willowsia nigromaculata
Willowsia nigromaculata

Willowsia nigromaculata
Willowsia nigromaculata 10-03-2013

Willowsia nigromaculata
Willowsia nigromaculata 22-06-2012

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Willowsia platani (Nicolet, 1841). Very common, widespread.

For a long time now I pay attention to whether I encounter plane trees, but usually these trees are planted in the center of the village and to peel there pieces of bark from the tree and take pictures and look to this pieces with a magnifying glass, is still just a step too far for me. In the forest, many people will often wonder what I do there anyway. 11-27-2011 I find a plane tree at the monastery of Ter Apel, on the edge of the forest. That is a godsend. On the second piece of tree bark I picked is a striped springtail. Here I have made some pictures of until I am sure that there are sharp among them. In my enthusiasm I don't look critically at the little creature and on the way home begins to strike the doubt. Is it the Willowsia platani I have found on the plane tree? At home another good look and it turns out to be Entomobrya corticalis, big disappointment. The next day it's good weather and I look again on the same tree. Now I take my time to see what is sitting on the tree. After an hour of taking pictures I have six species of springtails and finally the specie I'm looking for.

Willowsia platani
Willowsia platani

Willowsia platani
Willowsia platani

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Pogonognathellus flavescens (Tullberg, 1871). Moderately common, widespread.

The springtail with the tongue-twisting name Pogonognathellus flavescens has very long antennae, which makes it easy to distinguish it from similar species Tomocerus. The ends of the antennae are thin and the animals curl the ends if there is blown against it. I regularly encounter this species in the forest.

Pogonognathellus flavescens
Pogonognathellus flavescens

Pogonognathellus flavescens
Pogonognathellus flavescens

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Pogonognathellus longicornis (Müller, 1776). Common.

A relative, Pogonognathellus longicornis, has even much longer antennae. As it has such long antennae, the species is not to be confused, but it happens that the antennas are shorter and than it is difficult to distinguish this species from the previous. I have the impression that this species is brownish in color the other Tomoceridae are not.

Pogonognathellus longicornis
Pogonognathellus longicornis

Pogonognathellus longicornis
Pogonognathellus longicornis

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Tomocerus minor (Lubbock, 1862). Very common, wide spread.

The following springtail has a very different temperament. These creeps already after one photograph from the bark on the stone. By turning the stone a few times I manage to get a series of pictures here. This species comes from the same family as the previous one and is Tomocerus minor.

Tomocerus minor
Tomocerus minor

Tomocerus minor
Tomocerus minor

Tomocerus minor
Tomocerus minor

Tomocerus minor juvenile
Tomocerus minor juvenile

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Tomocerus vulgaris (Tullberg, 1871). Moderately common, widespread.

Tomocerus vulgaris
Tomocerus vulgaris

Under pieces of bark, stones and branches you can find Tomocerus vulgaris all year round. It is a fairly large species that can run very fast, often you can see them run on the wood pieces and than there is no possibility to photograph them. If you proceeds quietly, however, they remain sit still long, the ability to get a great shot. They have on the edge of the segments scales, that reflect light and gleam in the Sun like gold. By the shiny rings they are easy to identify. On the body are more reflective scales, so that the animal is often a feast of colors.

Tomocerus vulgaris
Tomocerus vulgaris

Tomocerus vulgaris
Tomocerus vulgaris

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Overview species:


You can also try to get a name by your photos of springtails with the photo key, click on the picture below, or here on
key springtails

key

 

Thanks

For the determination via Flickr thanks to Frans Janssens
For the determination via forum.waarneming.nl thanks to Matty Berg

 

Links

A very good website with information about: collembola.
Another very good website with information about: the collembola.

 

 

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